Papaver is a genus of 70–100 species of frost-tolerant annuals, biennials, and perennials native to temperate and cold regions of Eurasia, Africa and North America. It is the type genus of the poppy family, Papaveraceae. Poppies have been grown as ornamental plants since 5000 BC in Mesopotamia. They were found in Egyptian tombs. In Greek mythology, the poppy was associated with Demeter, goddess of fertility and agriculture. The origin of the cultural symbol was probably Minoan Crete, because a figurine known as the Poppy goddess was found at a Minoan sanctuary in Crete. People believed they would get a bountiful crop if poppies grew in their fields, hence the name Corn poppy. The ancient Greeks portrayed Hypnos, Nyx and Thanatos, the gods of sleep, night and death, with the symbol of the poppy. The earliest written record appeared in the eighth century BC. Early Greek accounts seem to indicate the plant was used for euthanasia; on some Greek islands, women used it in old age to shorten the time left until natural death. Hippocrates (460–377 BC) was one of the first to emphasize the medicinal uses of the poppy and outline several methods of preparation. He described poppy juice as narcotic, hypnotic, and cathartic. He also recognized the plant's uses as food, particularly the seeds.
The Old World swallowtail is a butterfly of the family Papilionidae. The butterfly is also known as the common yellow swallowtail or simply the swallowtail. It is the type species of the genus Papilio and occurs throughout the Palearctic region in Europe and Asia; it also occurs across North America, and thus, is not restricted to the Old World, despite the common name. The butterfly has a strong and fast flight, but frequently pauses to hover over flowering herbs and sip nectar. It frequents alpine meadows and hillsides, and males are fond of Hilltopping, congregating near summits to compete for passing females. Like all butterflies, Old World swallowtails undergo metamorphosis. In 8 to 10 days the eggs hatch into the larvae. The larval stage lasts for about 6-7 weeks, after which the pupal stage begins. Pupation usually occurs in August. This stage is the longest (and most variable) of the butterfly's life cycle lasting anywhere between 2 to 24 weeks. The adult stage is very short, often lasting only a few weeks. After breeding, the butterfly will die and the cycle begins again. The Old World Swallowtail has 1-5 broods in a year depending on how fast the ambient temperature allows them to develop. Caterpillars are naked and up to 45 mm long. Young caterpillars look like bird droppings which is a good camouflage. In the last two of the four instars they are green with black transversal bands carrying 6 rows of reddish spots. To defend themselves the larvae can protrude an orange, fleshy, smelling fork behind their heads called osmeterium. Caterpillars feed on a variety of umbellifers (in Eurasia), compositae (in Siberia and North America) and a few other plants consuming the leaves and flowers. The specific epithet machaon refers to Machaon, son of Asclepius in the works of Homer. There are 37 recognized subspecies.
Commonly known as Coral lily (or Low lily), Lilium pumilum is an Asian species of bulbous plants native to Mongolia, Siberia, the Russian Far East, Korea and northern China. Named pumilum (dwarf in Latin) for its small size, compared to other lilies. Lily bulbs are widely cultivated for food in Asia especially in China, Korea and Japan. In China they are grown in both the northern and central regions. Although there are many species of lily with edible bulbs, the ones most commonly grown for food in China are Lilium dauricum and Lilium pumilum. In addition to being used as a food item, lily bulbs have many medicinal uses. Most commonly they are used as an ingredient to make expectorant, which can help relieve symptoms of coughing, asthma or lung congestion.
Linaria is a genus of 150 species of herbaceous annuals and perennials and the largest genus in the Antirrhineae tribe of the plantain family Plantaginaceae. The members of this genus are known in English as toadflax, a name shared with several related genera. The scientific name Linaria means Resembling linum (flax), which the foliage of some species superficially resembles. Linaria has been used as a medicinal herb for the treatment of many illnesses and conditions, including hepatitis, hemorrhoids, scrofula, and scurvy. It has been used as an astringent, an emollient and a laxative.
Hemerocallis minor, is also known as Dwarf day lily, Grassleaf lily and Small daylily. It is native to northern Asia (Siberia, Mongolia, China, Korea). The plant grows up to 50 cm high. It has beautiful scentless yellow flowers that bloom from May to June. Hemerocallis, the botanical name for daylily means in Greek Beautiful for a day. Each flower only opens for one day. After it is spent, it is succeeded by the next day's blossom. In China, the flowers are eaten as a traditional food.
Sonchus arvensis, the field milk thistle, field sowthistle, perennial sow-thistle, corn sow thistle, dindle, gutweed, swine thistle, or tree sow thistle, is a species of flowering plant in the daisy family Asteraceae. Sonchus arvensis is native to Europe, where it is widespread across most of the continent. It has also become naturalized in many other regions, and is considered an invasive noxious weed in some places. The plant produces conspicuous yellow flowerheads that are visited by various types of insects.
Gentianopsis is a genus of flowering plants in the gentian family known commonly as fringed gentians. These are similar to the gentians of genus Gentiana. Most have flowers which are blue to purple in color. The genus has two centres of diversity, one in central Asia and another in temperate North America. The few representatives that reach the Arctic are morphologically fairly similar but differ in some presumed unrelated characters and are very disjunctly distributed. They have been treated partly as one species, as two, or as several. Six names are involved: Detonsa based on plants from Iceland, Barbata on plants from western Siberia, Nesophila on plants from Quebec, Raupii on plants from the Mackenzie River valley in the Northwest Territories, Richardsonii on plants from east of the Mackenzie River Delta in the Northwest Territories, and Yukonensis on plants from the Yukon Territory. Gentianopsis barbata used in traditional Chinese medicine.
Delphinium is a genus of about 300 species of perennial flowering plants in the family Ranunculaceae, native throughout the Northern Hemisphere and also on the high mountains of tropical Africa. The genus was erected by Carl Linnaeus. The genus name Delphinium derives from the Ancient Greek word Delphinion (dolphin), a name used in De Materia Medica for some kind of larkspur. Pedanius Dioscorides said the plant got its name because of its dolphin-shaped flowers. In most species each flower consists of five petal-like sepals which grow together to form a hollow pocket with a spur at the end, which gives the plant its name, usually more or less dark blue. Despite the toxicity, Delphinium species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species. Various delphiniums are cultivated as ornamental plants, for traditional and native plant gardens. All parts of these plants are considered toxic to humans, especially the younger parts, causing severe digestive discomfort if ingested, and skin irritation. All parts of the plant contain various diterpenoid alkaloids, typified by methyllycaconitine, and are very poisonous. The juice of the flowers, mixed with alum, gives a blue ink. Delphinium grandiflorum is a species of Delphinium known by the common names Siberian larkspur and Chinese Delphinium. It is native to Russia and China. Like many other larkspurs, this plant is poisonous. This species is commonly considered to have the most intense blue flowers of all species in its genus, although that depends on the particular variety, the particular plant, the freshness of the blossom, and the growing conditions. In sunlight the flowers can appear to glow or look fluorescent due to the intensity of the blue pigment.
Stellera chamaejasme is a perennial weed with a wide geographic range that is found from the Altai of eastern Russia, northern China and Mongolia southwards as far as the western Himalayas of the Qinghai-Tibet and Yungui Plateaus. The best known form has pale pink tubes and white lobes, but in China and Mongolia at least the flowers can be entirely rich yellow. The root is poisonous.
Polygonatum odoratum (Scented Solomon's seal) is a species of flowering plant in the family Asparagaceae, native to Siberia, the Russian Far East, China, Mongolia, Korea and Japan. Polygonatum odoratum is used in traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Korean medicine. Polygonatum is believed to be restorative to mental vitality, especially when the mind has been overworked, overstressed, or is in a state of exhaustion. In Korea, the root of the plant is used to make tea. Polygonatum comes from the Ancient Greek for Many knees, referring to the multiple jointed rhizome. One explanation for the derivation of the common name Solomon's seal is that the roots bear depressions which resemble royal seals. Another is that the cut roots resemble Hebrew characters.
Lilium pensylvanicum (also known as Lilium dauricum) is an Asian species of plants belonging to the family Liliaceae. Sometimes called the Siberian lily, it is native to a cold climate and needs frost in the winter. It is found in the wild form in Siberia, the Russian Far East, Mongolia, northeast China, Korea and Japan. The Latin name is misleading due to an error by the botanist John Bellenden Ker.
Iris humilis is a species in the genus Iris, it is also in the subgenus of Iris and in the Psammiris section. It is a rhizomatous perennial, from a wide distribution range from Europe to China. It has sword-shaped leaves, a short stem and yellow flowers with an orange beard. It is cultivated as an ornamental plant in temperate regions. It has the common name of Sand iris. Although, this name normally refers to Iris arenaria, which was formerly once thought to be a subspecies of Iris humilis, but it is now a separate species in its own right. It is also known as Low iris and Yellow iris. Note, that Iris pseudacorus is commonly known as the Yellow flag or Yellow iris as well. It is known as Sand-Schwertlilie (meaning sand iris) in Germany. The Latin specific epithet Humilis refers to low growing or dwarfish. It was first published and described by Johann Gottlieb Georgi in Bemerkungen einer Reise im Russischen Reich (Bemerk. Reise Russ. Reich) Vol. 1 page 196 in 1775. Georgi described from specimen plants from near to Lake Baikal (it was called originally Iris flavissima). Which is now classified as a synonym of Iris humilis. Like many other irises, most parts of the plant are poisonous (rhizome and leaves). Also handling the plant may cause a skin irritation or an allergic reaction. The rhizomes can be used as part of a Tibetan herbal medicine to regulate menstruation. A powdered form of the rhizome can be used for sepsis and infections.
Iris uniflora is a species in the genus Iris, it is also in the subgenus of Limniris. It takes its name from the Greek word for a rainbow, which is also the name for the Greek goddess of the rainbow, Iris. It is a rhizomatous perennial, from Russia, Mongolia, China and Korea. It has thin grass-like leaves and stems, and purple, blue-purple or violet flowers. It has the common name of Rock iris in Tibet and the Tibetan name of Yuki Ozawa. It is also known as Single-flowered iris in Russia. It was first widely published by Peter Simon Pallas in Jahrbucher der Gewachskunde (published in Berlin and Leipzig) in 1820. But was first found and named by Link but he did not publish it widely. Iris uniflora is native to temperate regions of Asia. It is found in Central Asia, Russia (including the states of Siberia, Primorye and Transbaikalia), Mongolia, Tibet, Korea and China (including Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Manchuria and Qinghai). It is used within Tibetan herbal medicines, the seeds are an ingredient in a remedy used to treat de-toxification and as an insecticide. The flowers are used to treat eyesight problems and the root is used to cure freckles and ringworm. It is cultivated as an ornamental plant in temperate regions.
Rhododendron dauricum, commonly called Dahurian (or Daurian) rhododendron, is a rhododendron species native to eastern Siberia, Mongolia, northern China, Korea and Japan. This rhododendron was first collected in Dauria, a mountainous region in southeastern Siberia east of Lake Baikal, hence the specific epithet and common name. Rhododendron dauricum used in Chinese folk medicine as an expectorant and mucolytic in the treatment of acute and chronic bronchitis.
Species from Lake Baikal, Russia, with finely divided leaves and erect stems of deep blue flowers. Unfortunately flowering tends to last only a few weeks and does not repeat. As the name suggests, from the area around Lake Baikal, where it does intergrade with Geranium pratense. The genus name is derived from the Greek (crane). The English name Cranesbill derives from the appearance of the fruit capsule of some of the species.
Solanum is a large and diverse genus of flowering plants. The generic name was first used by Pliny the Elder for a plant also known as strychnos, most likely Solanum nigrum. Its derivation is uncertain, possibly stemming from the Latin word Sol, meaning sun, referring to its status as a plant of the sun. Solanum kitagawae is a species native to Russia, China, Japan, Mongolia, Afghanistan. Known as: Solanum borealisinense, Solanum depilatum. All parts of the plant are poisonous, containing solanine, which can cause convulsions and death. Solanine has pesticidal properties, and it is one of the plant's natural defenses.
Papaver nudicaule, the Iceland poppy, is a boreal flowering plant. Native to subpolar regions of Europe, Asia and North America, and the mountains of Central Asia (but not in Iceland). Iceland poppies are hardy but short-lived perennials, often grown as biennials, that yield large, papery, bowl-shaped, lightly fragrant flowers supported by hairy, one foot, curved stems among feathery blue-green foliage. They were first described by botanists in 1759. The Latin specific epithet Nudicaule means With bare stems. All parts of this plant are likely to be poisonous, containing (like all poppies) toxic alkaloids.
Saxifraga is the largest genus in the family Saxifragaceae, containing more than 400 species of holarctic perennial plants, known as saxifrages or rockfoils. The Latin word Saxifraga means literally stone-breaker, from Latin Saxum (rock or stone) and Frangere (to break). It is usually thought to indicate a medicinal use for treatment of urinary calculi (known as kidney stones), rather than breaking rocks apart. Most saxifrages are smallish plants whose leaves grow close to the ground, often in a rosette. Saxifrages are typical inhabitants of Arctic-alpine ecosystems, and are hardly ever found outside the temperate parts of the Northern Hemisphere; most members of this genus are found in subarctic climates. A good number of species grow in glacial habitat. Various Saxifraga species are used as food plants by the caterpillars of some butterflies and moths, such as the Phoebus Apollo (Parnassius phoebus).
Chinese dunce cap is a slow-growing, fleshy-leafed succulent in the family Crassulaceae. It is found in arid areas in Mongolia, Russia and China and is remarkably hardy, thriving in temperatures as low as −40 degrees C (−40 F) and able to photosynthesize under a thin layer of snow. When the plant is mature, which takes about five years, it produces the conical flower stalk responsible for its common name and dies afterwards. Orostachys spinosa show amazing symmetry of the rosette, the leaf pattern follows a Fibonacci sequence. Orostachys spinosa is used in Mongolian herbal medicine, and in decorative rock gardens.
Stemmacantha is a genus of Asian plants in the thistle tribe within the daisy family. Perennial herb, 30-100 cm high. Growing in hills, pine forests at altitude 390-2700 m. Distributed in Siberia, the Russian Far East, northeast China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia. Contains volatile oil. Stemmacantha uniflora is used in Chinese herbal medicine.
Prunus sibirica, called Siberian apricot, is a species of shrub or small tree native to eastern China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia and eastern Siberia. It is in the genus Prunus in the rose family, Rosaceae, one of several species whose fruit are called apricot, although this species is rarely cultivated for its fruit. The species was named by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. A tree of Siberian apricot looks like the common apricot. However, all its parts are much smaller than the common apricot.
Vicia is a genus of about 140 species of flowering plants that are part of the legume family (Fabaceae), and which are commonly known as vetches. Vicia amoena is a species of vetch native to Asia (Siberia, the Russian Far East, Mongolia, northern China, Japan, Korea). Vicia amoena is a herbaceous perennial climbing plant growing 50-100 cm tall. The much-branched stems scramble over the ground, climbing into the surrounding vegetation where they attach themselves by means of tendrils. Vicia means binder in Latin; this was the name used by Pliny for vetch.
Dianthus is a genus of about 300 species of flowering plants in the family Caryophyllaceae. The name Dianthus is from the Greek words Dios (Zeus) and Anthos (flower), and was cited by the Greek botanist Theophrastus. Dianthus versicolor is used in traditional Mongolian medicine against liver impairment.
Veronica is the largest genus in the flowering plant family Plantaginaceae, with about 500 species; it was formerly classified in the family Scrophulariaceae. Common names include Speedwell, Bird's eye, and Gypsyweed. The genus name Veronica used in binomial nomenclature was chosen by Carl Linnaeus based on preexisting common usage of the name Veronica in many European languages for plants in this group. Such use in English is attested as early as 1572. The name probably reflects a connection with Saint Veronica, whose Latin name is ultimately derived from Greek, Berenice. Native Americans used Veronica species as an expectorant tea to alleviate bronchial congestion associated with asthma and allergies. Veronica sp. herb has been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally (as tea) for treatment of disorders of the nervous system, respiratory tract, cardiovascular system, and metabolism. Several Veronica species and cultivars are cultivated for use as ground cover. Species of Veronica are used as food plants by the larvae of some species of Lepidoptera.
The genus Pulsatilla contains about 33 species of herbaceous perennials native to meadows and prairies of North America, Europe and Asia. It is a member of the Buttercup (Ranunculaceae) family. Common names include Pasque flower (or Pasqueflower), Wind flower, Prairie crocus, Easter flower, May Day flower (or May flower), Goslin weed and Meadow anemone. The flower blooms early in spring, which leads to the common name Pasque flower, since pasque refers to Easter (Passover). Originally named the Paschflower (from the Hebrew word Pasch, which means Passover) by botanist and herbalist John Gerard in 1597. The old English common name was originally Pass flower, adopted from the French Passe fleur. Like most cold climate plants, the pasque flower grow close to the ground and covered with downy, insulative hairs. The Blackfeet Indians called pasque flower Napi and used the leaves as a poultice as a counter-irritant for rheumatism. This plant has a suite of cardiogenic toxins that can produce cardiovascular shock and coma. However, Blackfeet Indian women used extracts of the plant to induce abortions or childbirth. The ancient physicians attributed special potency to plants with hanging blossoms and, in accordance with the doctrine of signatures, prescribed them for patients who Let their heads hang (depression, melancholy). Legend has it that pasque flowers sprang up in places that had been soaked by the blood of Viking warriors. The Pasque flower was approved as the official floral emblem of South Dakota in 1903 and provincial flower of Manitoba in 1906.
Clausia aprica grows in steppes and steppefied meadows from East Europe and the Caucasus to Transbaikalia and Central Asia. The genus Clausia is in the family Brassicaceae in the major group Angiosperms. Clausia is named after Baltic German chemist and naturalist Karl Ernst Claus. Claus was a professor at Kazan State University and a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He was primarily known as a chemist and discoverer of the chemical element ruthenium, but also as one of the first scientists who applied quantitative methods in botany.
Inula britannica, the British yellowhead or meadow fleabane, is a Eurasian species of plant in the genus Inula within the daisy family. It is widespread across much of Europe and Asia, and sparingly naturalized in scattered locations in North America. Inula britannica is an erect herb up to 75 cm (30 inches) tall, with fine hairs but not the thick woolly coat characterizing some related species. Leaves are lance-shaped, up to 5 cm (2 inches) long. One plant produces a few heads, each on a long flower stalk. Each had contains 50-150 yellow ray flowers and 100-250 yellow disc flowers. The plant produces the flavonol axillarin.
Chamerion angustifolium, commonly known as Fireweed (mainly in North America), Great willow-herb (some parts of Canada), or Rosebay willowherb (mainly in Britain), is a perennial herbaceous plant in the willowherb family Onagraceae. The species name Angustifolium (narrowleaved) is constructed from the Latin words angustus meaning narrow and folium meaning leaved or leaf. It is native throughout the temperate Northern Hemisphere, including large parts of the boreal forests. This herb is often abundant in wet calcareous to slightly acidic soils in open fields, pastures, and particularly burned-over lands; the name Fireweed derives from the species' abundance as a coloniser on burnt sites after forest fires. Its tendency to quickly colonize open areas with little competition, such as sites of forest fires and forest clearings, makes it a clear example of a pioneer species. Plants grow and flower as long as there is open space and plenty of light. In Russia, its leaves were traditionally used as a tea, before the introduction of tea from China starting in the 17th century, it was greatly valued and was exported in large quantities to Western Europe as Koporye tea, Russian tea or Ivan Chai. Today, Koporye tea is still commonly sold and consumed in Russia, though it is not nearly as popular as it was in Pre-Soviet Russia. The young leaves, shoots and flowers of narrow-leaved fireweed are edible, and the flowers are used to make fireweed jelly. Yupik eskimos preserved the stems in seal oil in order to eat them year-round, and they used the tough outer stem to make fishing nets. Fireweed also has many uses in traditional medicine. Fireweed is the floral emblem of Yukon.
Alpine aster is an ornamental plant native to the mountains of Europe (including the Alps and the Pyrenees), a subspecies native to Canada and the United States. This is a perennial forb, has purple, pink or blue flowers, belonging to the Aster family. The genus name comes from the Latin word Aster for star shaped flowers. The specific epithet means Alpine; from the high mountains above the timberline. This species is very variable. The typical variety appears to be European and does not reach Siberia; specimens identified as A. alpinus var. alpinus in China belong to A. alpinus var. vierhapperi, the variety widespread from Siberia to North America.
Most insects reproduce by laying eggs, this is known as oviparity. In most cases the female insect will lay eggs either singularly or in batches in a suitable place. In most species of insect there is little or no parental care. Once the eggs have been laid then the female leaves them, never to return. However, in some insects the females do tend the eggs.
Allium senescens, commonly called Aging chive, German garlic, Mountain garlic or Broadleaf chives, is a species of flowering plant in the genus Allium (which includes all the ornamental and culinary onions and garlic). Genus name comes from the classical Latin name for garlic. Specific epithet means growing old. German garlic is native to Siberia, Mongolia, China and Korea. The blooms are highly attractive to butterflies, bees and other insects. Although all parts of this plant have an oniony smell and taste when cut or bruised, this species is not usually used for culinary purposes.
Leontopodium is a genus of plants in the Asteraceae family (which also includes daisies and sunflowers). The genus is native to Europe and Asia. The fuzzy and somewhat stocky petals (technically, bracts) could be thought of as somewhat resembling lions' paws - hence the genus name combining Leon (lion) and Podion (foot). Leontopodium ochroleucum is an Asian species, was described by Gustave Beauverd. Similar to the other species but with somewhat broader petals and leaves. The flowers overall resemble the typical edelweiss flower, blooming over an extended period in summer.
Rosa davurica (also known as Amur rose) is a deciduous wild rose growing to 1.5 m, which mainly grows in sunny places along forest edges, grassy hills, and glades at altitudes from 400 to 2500 m. Dahurian rose fruit, called Cimeiguo in Chinese, is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds.
Dasiphora fruticosa is a species of hardy deciduous flowering shrub in the family Rosaceae, native to the cool temperate and subarctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere, often growing at high altitudes in mountains. Dasiphora fruticosa is a disputed name, and the plant is still widely referenced in the horticultural literature under its synonym Potentilla fruticosa. Common names include Shrubby cinquefoil, Golden hardhack, Bush cinquefoil, Shrubby five-finger, Tundra rose, and Widdy. Shrubby cinquefoil is a popular ornamental plant in temperate regions. Dasiphora fruticosa leaves are widely used as tea in China. It has been confirmed to possess significant antioxidant activity. In Russia common name is Kuril tea (this name refers to the Kuril Islands - a volcanic archipelago that stretches northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, Russia). Tea of Dasiphora fruticosa leaves is used in many infectious diseases, it has antiviral and antibacterial properties.
Chrysanthemum zawadskii, commonly known as Zawadzki chrysanthemum, is a compact, clump-forming, herbaceous perennial. It is native to a variety of habitats including alpine slopes, streambanks, forest understories, grasslands, and open places from eastern Europe (including in particular the Carpathian and Ural mountains), to Siberia, Japan, Korea, and northern China. Solitary (infrequently appearing in a loose corymb) daisy-like flowers feature white rays and yellow center discs. Flowers bloom in July-September. Genus name comes from the Greek words Chrysos meaning gold and Anthemon meaning flower. Specific epithet was named after Alexander Zawadzki (1798-1868), Polish-Hungarian botanist and naturalist, by Franz Herbich (1791-1865) who discovered this plant growing in the Pieniny Mountains (western Carpathians) in 1829 and subsequently first described it in 1831.
Clematis hexapetala is a perennial with pure white flowers. Was described by Peter Simon von Pallas in 1776. Clematis hexapetala is native to China, Korea, Mongolia and eastern Siberia. Clematis is a genus of about 300 species within the buttercup family, Ranunculaceae. They are mainly of Chinese and Japanese origin. The genus name is from Ancient Greek Clematis (a climbing plant). The wild Clematis species native to China made their way into Japanese gardens by the 17th century. Japanese garden selections were the first exotic clematises to reach European gardens, in the 18th century, long before the Chinese species were identified in their native habitat at the end of the 19th century. After it arrived in Europe, it acquired several meanings during the Victorian era, famous for its nuanced flower symbolism. It came to symbolize both mental beauty and art as well as poverty. The entire genus contains essential oils and compounds which are extremely irritating to the skin and mucous membranes. Despite its toxicity, Native Americans used very small amounts of clematis as an effective treatment for migraine headaches and nervous disorders. It was also used as an effective treatment of skin infections.
Scorzonera is a genus of flowering plants in the Asteraceae family. It is often claimed that the name of the genus Scorzonera derives from the old French word Scorzon meaning snake, which seems likely given a widespread belief that the plant makes a good antidote against bites of venomous snakes. Alternatively, the name could be derived from the Italian Scorza negra meaning black bark and indicating the dark brown to black skin of the root. Scorzonera radiata is used for the treatment of diarrhea, lung edema, parasitic diseases, and fever caused by bacterial and viral infections in Chinese and Mongolian traditional medicine.
Meadow-rue is an exceptionally beautiful perennial in the Ranunculaceae (buttercup) family. Despite their common name of Meadow-rue, Thalictrum species are unrelated to the true rue (family Rutaceae). The English word Rue refers to the resemblance between the leaves of these plants and the herb rue (Ruta). Thalictrum is an old Greek name for this genus. Meadow-rues are usually found in shaded or damp locations, throughout most of the Northern Hemisphere and also south to southern Africa and tropical South America. World-wide there are between 120 to 200 in the genus Thalictrum. According to Rafinesque (1830), the roots of certain species of Thalictrum were used in Canada for the cure of snakebites, and the leaves were sometimes employed as an ingredient of spruce beer; but the species referred to are not named.
Orostachys malacophylla is a small succulent plant with rosettes up to 15 cm (6 inches) across at maturity. It is native to Siberia, Mongolia, China, Korea, Japan. The leaves are green, oblong to elliptic, entire, without apical spine. In summer, the rosettes rise like an erupting volcano as they burst into flower.
Oxytropis is a genus of plants in the legume family. It is one of three genera of plants known as locoweeds, and are notorious for being toxic to grazing animals. The other locoweed genus is the closely related Astragalus. Oxytropis myriophylla is a species native to eastern Siberia, Mongolia and northern China. Oxytropis myriophylla is used in traditional Mongolian medicine for treatment of rubella and influenza; it is also applied for swelling and throat pain, together with different types of bleeding.
Potentilla is a genus containing over 300 species of annual, biennial and perennial herbaceous flowering plants in the rose family, Rosaceae. They are usually called cinquefoils in English. Cinquefoil means Five-leaved, from the French Cinq feuilles (five leaves) and ultimately the Latin Quinquefolium. Potentilla are generally only found throughout the northern continents of the world (holarctic). Typical cinquefoils look most similar to strawberries, but differ in usually having dry, inedible fruit (hence the name Barren strawberry for some species). The flowers are usually yellow. In heraldry, the cinquefoil emblem signified strength, power, honor, and loyalty. Depiction of the five-petalled flower appears as early as 1033, in the architecture of the church built in the village of Reulle-Vergy in Burgundy, France, two years before the reign of William the Conqueror. The cinquefoil emblem was used generously in the architecture of numerous churches built in Normandy and Brittany through the 15th century.